aristocrats and upper-class m▓onastery lamas - exer

Qing Dynasty (1644-1911) in the 17th century indicate that Tibet then had more than 3 mil▓li

on mu of farmland, of which 30.9 percent was owned by the local feudal government, 29.6 percent by

ted extremely brutal p

aristocrats, and 39.5 percent by monastery and upper-ranking lamas. €The monopoly of means of production by the three major estate-holders remained unchanged until the adoption of democratic reforms in 1959. €According to statistics, the family of the 14th Dalai Lama possessed 27 manors▓, 30 pastures and more than 6,000 serfs. About 33,000 ke (one ke equals 14 kilograms) of qingke (highland barley), 2,500 ke of butter, two million liang of Tibetan si

olitical suppression and e

lver, 300 head of cattle, and 175 rolls of pulu (woolen fabric made in Tibet) were squeezed out of its serfs every year. €It is known that each Dalai Lama had two money-lending agencies. Some money from "tribute" to the Dalai Lama was lent at an exorbitant rate of interest.▓ €According to incomplete records in the account books of the two agencies, they lent 3,038,581 liang of silver as principal in 1950, and collected 303,858 lia▓ng in interest the

conomic expl

oitation o n the s▓e rfs and slav es. €About 90 percent of old Tibet's populat

ion was made u

same year. Governments of various levels in the old Tibet also had many such a▓gencies, and lending money and interest collection became a duty of local officials. €A survey made in 1959 showed that the three major monasteries, namely Drepung, Sera and Ganden, in Lhasa, lent a total of 22,725,822 kilograms of grain and collected 399,364 kilograms in int

Copyright © 2014.Company name All rights reserved.p of serf▓s, called tralpa in Tibetan (namely, people who tilled plots of land assign
ed to them and had to provide corvee labor for their serf owners) and duiqoin (small households with chimneys emitting
smoke). T hey had no mea ns of producti on or personal freedom , and only l ived on tillin g plots for estate-holders for survival. €In add ition, nangz an, about 5 percent of t he old T ibet's populatio n, were hereditary s lave▓s regarded as "speaking tools. " €Statistics re leased in the early years▓ of the 五寨县wap 偃师市wap 万盛区wap 肥城市5G 郸城县5G 利辛县5G 武安市5G 颍上县wap 杭锦旗wap 巩义市5G 平度市5G 阳高县wap 歙县5G 蒙阴县5G 玉林市5G 永新县wap 黎平县wap 全南县5G 定襄县wap 阿荣旗wap 今日新开单职业传奇私服 热血传奇私服单机 好玩的传奇私服手游 win7如何架设传奇私服 求正规传奇私服发布网站 战士彻地丁传奇私服 传奇私服散人天堂 传奇私服散人打金服 传奇私服架设教程自己玩单机 传奇私服能赚钱吗